The Paths of Ericksonian Knowledge (Metanymous)

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1. DEEPENING

We would like to start the theme of deepening the Ericksonian knowledge with a simple example. Everybody knows a short Ericksonian metaphor: ”from A to Z”. Typically, it is explained as an instruction to do something from the very beginning to the very end, as a whole. That is a general idea. And the second meaning is a suggestion of age regression. Usually it is used at the stage of deepening the trance state. And also it is recognized to be a universal metaphor, effective in any language, because every language has some alphabet. But we can add some other general understanding: do it in a sequence, step after step.

The authors are not native English speakers so it is easier for them to ask the question: “What else can it mean? What can it mean that is different and specific?” That is sort of a mental game. ”From A to Z” is about an age regression, so we become like children. We are like children who don’t know English or just started to learn it. Or, maybe, we are the patient’s unconsciousness that has got an instruction to go to trance and the suggestion of the way to go to trance. What does this suggestion require for? A and Z are the letters in English dictionary. So we have to open (or remember) the dictionary. We open the dictionary and see some more clear instruction in the very beginning of the part “A”. The first word of a rather small (fit for age regression) dictionary is:

ABACK with the literal etymological meaning “toward back”
Aback – take sb aback – shock or surprise sb

So the first instruction we’ve got is to be shocked and surprised (pattern interruption) and go further. Is it “go to the letter “B”?” But there’s nothing told about “B”. So we go to “Z”!
Then we open (remember) a small English dictionary for “Z”. We find not very many special meanings there. And they help us (our unconsciousness) to know how to proceed in trance:

Those instructions and suggestions create emotional attitude:
Zeal – energy or enthusiasm; keenness
Zealot – person who is extremely enthusiastic about sth; fanatic
Zealous – eager
Zippy – lively and energetic
Zest – great enjoyment or excitement; having added interest flavour, charm

Those instructions and suggestions direct our attention as we are curious when have an excursion to the ZOO. Our attention is directed toward alive creatures whose minds function the samewway as our unconscious does:
Zoo – place where living animals are kept
Zebra – African wild animal

That is a suggestion that leads us to the idea of еру night sky and can be a suggestion about going to sleep:
Zodiac – imaginary band of the sky containing the positions of the sun, the moon and the main planets, divided into 12 equal parts

That is a suggestion that delivers the idea of something upper. It may help in doing arm levitation:
Zenith – point in the heavens directly above an observer

That is a suggestion of dissociation, so all the experience is put into some place different from the surroundings:
Zone – area, band or stripe that is different from its surroundings

When we think about zigzag we also think about the view of a broken line. In order to look at this line we have to turn our eyes to the right and to the left, little bit upper and down. That is a line of our look when we look at a concrete picture. That is a suggestion of becoming ready for positive hallucination:
Zigzag – turning right and left alternately at sharp angles

This suggestion requires that we free our mind for the trance state. Sometimes Dr. Erickson told: “You are just waiting”:
Zero – one less than one

This is a suggestion of nonspecific alteration of auditory perception. Sometimes Dr. Erickson told: “You may here sounds of wind while you are in a trance”: Zoom – move very quickly, esp. with a buzzing or humming noise

So, we see that “from A to Z” is a very concrete instruction about the development of trance. The literalism of interpretation helps us to find this instruction.

1.1 Literalism

While reading Erickson (R. Havens, The Wisdom of Milton H. Erickson, p.252) we find the following words: "Her contention, with which I came to agree strongly, was that every hypnotic suggestion should be given in language permitting "ready and simplistic interpretation", explaining that the hypnotic state tended to limit the spoken word to its literal meaning. She further contended that precision and concisenss of instruction allows subjects to respond in term of their own understandings, free from added enforced implications of social adjustments". And we remember that Dr. Erickson considered literalism to be the main principle of trance work.

Thinking about that we notice that the principle of literalism is a wide and multidimensional concept. There are different sorts of literalism:

  • Literalism of perception – that is found very frequently in Dr. Erickson’s work; he used a very precise visual and auditory perception.

We use the word literalism, not precision, because speaking about visual and auditory precision he means such sort of precision that helps to find out new meanings, special processes. For example, that is expressed when the words and nonverbal signs coincide.
While reading Erickson (R. Havens, The Wisdom of Milton H. Erickson, p.23) we find the following words: “And if you learn to observe, you can learn to recognize those changes almost immediately”.

  • Literalism of content – trying to decode the metaphor “from A to Z” we used the literalism of content.
  • Literalism of Ericksonian knowledge – in this report we are going to show that there is a special literalism of Ericksonian approach.

It is possible to train in literalism: to create literalism of communication and to decode Dr. Erickson's literalism in his knowledge that he has addressed us as his trance work.

By the way, when the therapist is listening Dr. Erickson's metaphor designed for patients he receives learning experience exactly the same way as the patients do. That is literalism. How wide is it? What is embodied in this literalism?

1.2. ERICKSONIAN WISDOM AS A PRINCIPLE OF THERAPY

When reading Erickson (R. Havens, The Wisdom of Milton H. Erickson, p.150) we find the following words: "Patients can be silly, forgetful, absurd, unreasonable, illogical, incapable of acting with common sense, and very often governed and directed in their behavior by emotions and by unknown, unrecognizable and perhaps undiscoverable unconscious needs and forces which are far from reasonable, logical, or sensible".

So the therapy needs some ways to create such wisdom in patient’s internal world. In order to get that wisdom one needs, first, to be able to arrange the emotions, secondly, one needs constructive thinking, and thirdly, one needs to be able to get resources out of the whole storage of memory. How can it be set? What time is needed for that, because those things come and get accumulated with time as a long-life experience? Is it possible to teach wisdom if the person doesn’t have such experience?

1.2.1. The integration of positive and negative feelings

Perhaps, the first root of that personal wisdom is the ability to combine the things that can't be combined: positive feelings – negative feelings.

There is needed some process that can bring in the experience of such an integration that is not just thinking. When we watch and study Dr. Erickson work we perceive a monolog and notice long pauses interrupting it.

Below we are analyzing the structure of Dr. Erickson’s work with Monde ("The Artistry of Milton H. Erickson", distributed by Herbert Lustig, M.D., Bala Cynwyd, Pa., 1975).

The fragments separated by the pauses contain negative and positive statements. So there is a sudden turning from one mood to the opposite. “+45” means that 45 fragments were said, separated one from another by pauses and followed by the long pauses after the last fragment and all 45 fragments contained the words of positive meaning. “-4” means that there were 4 fragments said, separated pauses, and followed by the long pauses after the last fragment and they all contained some negative meaning. And so on. So here is a short note of all the sequence of positive and negative fragments:

the beginning of 1 cycle +45 -4 +2 -1
2 cycle +19 -2 +1 -4
3 cycle +6 -1 +1 -11
4 cycle +2 -2 +1 -1
5 cycle +5 -1 +2 -2
6 cycle +3 the end

Here are two examples of positive fragments:

(1)
(pause)
and I hope you enjoy it
as much as I wish and you probably will enjoy it more
than I can know
(pause)
(2)
(pause)
very deeply
you're somewhere out of the past
you'll come upon a happy scene
and I want you to visualize it
(pause)

And here are two examples of negative fragments:

(1)
(pause)
It's nice to be comfortable, isn't it?
Now think of something bad
before the age of six
(pause)
(2)
(pause)
and there's gonna be some hate
in you
that spanking

Here the pause is a marker of positive reactions and the integration of positive and negative reactions. Each positive fragment sounds in a "non-stop" way and it contains a lot of information to be heard. Monde perceives the information but she needs time to get through it. So it is after the fragment and during the pause that she becomes fully absorbed in the internal positive emotional and physiological experience.

As we see from the scheme, the session starts with 45 positive fragments and pauses after each of them and the patient's unconsciousness gets trained: "When the pause is heard only the positive emotional and physiological response is developed". That is why those pauses are called "positive pauses". When after the 45th pause there is a negative fragment # 46. The 46th pause is heard the patient starts to experience two internal processes simultaneously: the words that were just told are to lead to the negative emotional and physiological reaction but there is previously learned positive reaction to the long pause - the result of 45 previous repetitions. Two reactions are experienced simultaneously and the positive one is stronger because it was set earlier.

The process of the integration of positive and negative experiences takes place when the patient develops positive state in response to negative stimuli and when the positive experience is dominating. That is the main process of healing psychotherapeutic integration. As we can see in the scheme of the positive and negative fragments interchange, the integration process is accomplished in 5 full cycles. The apotheosis of the integration takes place in the end of the 3rd cycle where there is the biggest number of gathered negative fragments: - 11 fragments, the 87th - 98th.

This way we can teach the wisdom without speculating about it. But what about the therapists - can they do it without knowing it? Isn't it necessary to master such skills?

Dr. Erickson wrote (R. Havens, The Wisdom of Milton H. Erickson, p.150): "Patients often can't think for themselves. You start them thinking in some good reality way." If we perceive those words literally, our task is to teach the patients to think. How can we teach them to think?

1.2.2. Constructive thinking (breathing phrase structure)

How can we teach patients to think in a right way without speculating about the right content of thinking? What time is needed for that? We know only one example of solving that problem. We can’t teach the constructive thinking basing on the personal patient’s experience because our task is to set the process. So the task is to develop the patient’s own process of constructive, effective and pragmatic quantum sequencing of the thoughts. And the second important skill is to sequence the ideas: to move from abstract thinking to the concrete one.

Now we will discuss the sequencing. Thinking process is an internal dialog. First of all we are to teach the patient to make quantum sequencing of his / her thoughts. There's no order in thoughts without creating that quantum sequencing. Dr. Erickson used natural physiological rhythms for teaching that process knowing that the physiological rhythmic processes can work for that.

Dr. Erickson's speech is a model of right thinking and here we are looking and listening what is Dr. Erickson showing and teaching us. We go back to the transcript of Dr. Erickson working with Monde. Here are two sequences of the phrases that were said between breath-ins:

(1)
(pause)
I would like to have you single out some one thing
that you could talk to me about
that you talk to strangers about
and you could share
something very pleasing very
charming
(pause)
and just as you're spreading your feeling of cool comfort
you can spread a feeling
of warmth and comfort
over your experiences
'cause they do radiate
(pause)
(2)
(pause)
I'll tell you one of the things you're learning
and that is that your left hand
is beginning to lift
without your
intention
(pause)

When Dr. Erickson comes from the long phrases to shorter ones the breath-ins allow to interiorize that type of phrases into patient’s internal dialog as his / her own skill and ability to make the thoughts ordered and sequenced. That happens because the borders of thoughts are joined together with the breath-ins – it’s difficult to control the thinking process but it’s easy to control the breathing process.

The second important skill is to sequence the ideas: to move from abstract thinking to concrete thinking. (As you see, the phrases become shorter and shorter unless the next long phrase is pronounced. This shape is similar to a triangle, so we use the term “triangle” to discuss that phenomenon.) We look at the first and the last lines (phrases) of the "triangles" and compare them. There is a regularity, we analyzed it and here are the results:

Generalized meanings of the first and the last phrases of the breathing “triangles”
If the 1st phrase is about then the last phrase is about:
1 external experience (the world) Internal experience
2 the characteristic of an object the object
3 an idea or a thought the generalization of the thought
4 indefinite time frame Definite time frame
5 a nominalization of mental process a peculiarity of the mental process
a nominalization of mental process result of the mental process
a nominalization of mental process prescription to carry it out
6 a suggestion of the problematic experience a suggestion of a movement that helps to control it
7 the description of posthypnotic suggestion

generally

the specific form of the suggestion
8 posthypnotic suggestion the dissociation between consciousness and unconsciousness
9 the final posthypnotic suggestion the command to awaken

This way Dr. Erickson taught patients the process of wisdom. This is the second root of his wisdom.

How can the therapists be trained to deepen the Ericksonian wisdom literally doing it in practice? A short instruction how it can be done is the following. You can use reading aloud. At first you take the therapeutic texts or Dr. Erickson’s original texts. You divided the text into phrases and read them controlling your breathing and making long pauses.

1.2.3. Constructive memory (The Special Algorithm of Restructuring the Work of Memory)

Dr. Erickson wrote (R. Havens, The Wisdom of Milton H. Erickson, p. 67): "Yet as a result of experiential events of his past life, there has been built up within his body - although all unrecognized - certain psychological, physiological, and neurological learnings, associations".

In Dr. Erickson’s work with Monde we see the way how special sequence of suggestions guarantees the resourceful memory operation. This sequence generally restructures the work of memory so that it becomes a universal resource for the person, that is an indirect suggestion of how the memory should work in his \ her life. Obviously, it is not possible to get into emotional or mental troubles for the person whose memory works as a stable positive resource.

When Dr. Erickson suggests Monde to recall a particular event from her past he does that in such a manner that delivers a metaphorical meaning: "Make your memory work according to certain criterions, make it to be such and such and then all your problems will be resolved automatically". When the criterions are presented one after another they get summarized and compose a special formula. So, what are those criterions? They are sequenced in the fragments 4 – 8 of the transcript? We offer you the words from the transcript in their original sequence and before Dr. Erickson’s words there are the criterions that are embodied in those words

fragment 4

* The first mention of the memory, the words "can deal" point that the person should work and be not passive but active:

... so that your unconscious can deal with that vast store of memories that you have ...

* The suggestion that at any moment the memory should serve for the person’s well-being, it should make the person comfortable but quite realistically:

... I'd like to have you feel very comfortable and while you are in the trance I would like to have you feel coolness not too cold but just coolness (pause) just enough coolness so that you might want it to get just a bit warmer ...

fragment 5

* The analogy between memory and a highway that means that the memory should be structured as a road -  uninterrupted, sequenced, there is a beginning point and a goal, there can be a stop but not for long, being at the road we can look around, at the road people are moving actively, etc.:

... it is as if you are traveling a highway passing this scene, that scene in your life ...

* Beginning from this point the criterions are appearing one by one. And the very first is that the memory should be positive emotionally:

... and perhaps something very nice that you could recall

* The second criterion is the ecological one, the memory should be free of the latest associations:

... that you haven't thought about for years ...

* The third criterion is that there should be a sense of interest - a special mental and emotional state:

... it'd be most interesting if you would find

* The fourth criterion is the time frame:

... some childhood infantile memory ...

* The second criterion is repeated:

... that you haven't thought of for years ...

* An example and an indirect suggestion of the fifth criterion - the memory should be about some event where the subject was active, growing and developing as a human-being:

... such as the time when you discovered you could stand up

fragment 6

* An important addition to the fifth criterion - this activity and development should change subject's view of the whole world and this change should be positive and motivating:

... and the entire world looked different the world suddenly takes on a wonderful look when you stand up and are no longer creeping then older you bent over and looked at the world from between your lags so you would have another view of this world look that you looked at and found so interesting ...

fragment 7

* The sixth criterion - the recalled event and the memory should be laconic, there should be well formed parts:

... I would like to have you single out some one thing ...

* The seventh criterion - the recalled event and the memory should be interesting for some other people:

... that you could talk to me about, that you talk to strangers about, and you could share

* And again, it should be positive emotionally:

... something very pleasing very charming ...

fragment 8

* And again about comfortable state now-here as an analog of comfortable memory, also here is a presupposition that if the memory is not so comfortable, the current comfort can be spread over the experiences.

... and just as you're spreading your feeling of cool comfort you can spread a feeling of warmth and comfort over your experiences 'cause they do radiate.

The mention of  "cool comfort... warmth and comfort" at the beginning of memory work and at the end makes a cycle, so that the comfort becomes a symbol of comfortable and resourceful memory.

Those seven criterions when presented in such an order to limit the choice and prevent undesirable associations. That is how the mechanism of unconscious choice works. When, first, the subject is asked to recall something pleasant then all the unpleasant memories are moved aside. So when at the second step the subject is asked to recall something interesting then he / she unconsciously will make choice among pleasant memories. So in result we will get more or less interesting memory but for sure it will be a pleasant one. This way we summarize the criterions and the sequence of the criterions becomes the most important part of the technique.

This means that in practice most important criterion should be put first. For example, if we compare two sequences:

  1. "Please, recall something pleasant, something interesting ..."
  2. "Please, recall something interesting, something pleasant ..."

In the first example hearing the word "pleasant" subject can think of something uninteresting but it will be still pleasant. In the second example hearing the word "interesting" subject can think about something interesting but unpleasant that can interfere with the therapy.

This sequence of seven criterions works as a special algorithm and can be used in trance work as well as in the therapy in waking state. This algorithm is especially valuable in brief therapy. The unconsciousness of the patient will get this sequence as macro-suggestion and the resourceful state will be more available.

1.2.4. Restructuring Emotional Life

For finding out that method we use, again, Ericksonian literalism. Let’s look at some words of the fragment # 39 in the transcript of Dr. Erickson’s work with Monde. It is about learning the alphabet: “A very good time ... it's a learning ... good feelings ... just as learning an alphabet ... and learning to recognize letters and numbers ... it's the bases ... so are the good feelings of splashing with total abandonment in water ... that you learn...” Let’s start discussing those suggestions the same way as we did with the metaphor “from A to Z”.  

We may find that here every letter is like one resourceful feeling from the past (from the memory), so there are 26 letters - 26 resourceful feelings / emotions. This literally means that the diversity of human (patients’) emotions is to be unlimited. Typically human beings have 2 or 3 resourceful feelings. Count, how many different important emotions you have yourselves. It's not so easy. You may be surprised that there are not many of them. But in this literal metaphor Erickson insists that the patient should get about 26 resourceful feelings. 26 is enough.  

And also, when we perceive emotions as the letters it means that there’s no need to accumulate the emotions but to make many different combinations of them the same way as the letters are combined in words, sentences, paragraphs and huge interesting books.

There are also mentioned the numbers that can summarize and the sum can be very big. What is the special feeling that can grow bigger and bigger unlimited? That is the feeling that goes along with the development of abilities.

It’s not very easy to find such multi-leveled words-metaphors. There are not much of them in natural language. But we can use Dr. Erickson’s findings when we know what is embodied in them.

1.2.5. Learning Ericksonian Perfection

Dr. Erickson told (R. Havens, The Wisdom of Milton H. Erickson, p.21): “Every time I demonstrate something before a professional audience, I tell them, "Now you didn't see, you didn't hear, you didn't think. These are the steps." It is so much easier to think there is something special about me than to learn to really observe and think. "Erickson is mystical," they say”.
Keeping these words in mind, we ask ourselves if there is any limit of deepening Ericksonian knowledge. And if we are to deepen it what is the best way and the best tool for that? We have chosen the answer that there are no such limits. And we have chosen literalism as a way of studying Ericksonian heritage.

Now, we have many different things that are unknown and can be discovered in Ericksonian approaches. We have discussed and decoded the idea of  "from A to Z" - that is a small thing. Dr. Erickson teaches and leads his patients to the integration of different human emotions, he trains them in constructive thinking and the process of resourceful memory, he trains them to restructure the emotional world inside. Those are the "big things" that are the deepening of Ericksonian knowledge obtained with the use of literalism.

Maybe, it is a “big thing” and a whole concept is embodied in it. Maybe, that shows us how we can heal and teach simultaneously.
Literalism also helped us to discover special "strange" communicational techniques – braking  speech with natural breath-ins creating different structures. The other "strange" thing is the use of long pauses. Those long pauses can be turned into the pauses that deliver some meaning and they become meaningful pauses. Dr. Erickson told about that and showed the examples. But he didn't tell that a whole session can be based on the structure of meaningful pauses.

When you discover that for the first time you get stuck with the question, why he didn't discuss those things directly. Some people say that that is because his unconscious mind did all those things and his conscious mind didn't know about that. We don't agree with such a view. We find those things by following the principle of literalism, pointed by Dr. Erickson. But Dr. Erickson told about the importance of learning and thinking and we take those words literally. We decided to do that “through the looking glass” of literalism, we understand his heritage is an instruction for us, his followers, to learn and think as he did.

This is an amazing process in the up-middle age, when you are an educated and experienced professional and you try to continue learning to think studying Dr. Erickson’s heritage. That is so easy. For example, there is the question, why can cactus help an alcoholic person. Cactus is alive and so is the alcoholic. What is the similarity and difference between them? Cactus is like alcoholic: "the drinking problem" is vitally important for it. And cactus is different because it can accumulate and keep the "pleasure" which alcoholic can't. Cactus has sharp spines. It is safe in the world, but the alcoholic isn't, he is vulnerable. And cactus can wait for a very long time.

That is very simple to learn those things from Dr. Erickson. You only make a text of your therapy, you group positive and negative ideas, you think about the plan of the sequence, you separate one idea from the other by a long pause, as a paragraph in the written text. You learn to control your pauses, because even the pauses work in your therapeutic monolog. Or even simpler, you can take a good book with rather big paragraphs and read it aloud quickly and make pauses (1-4 seconds) between the paragraphs. Those new useful communicational habits appear so fast. You read one text this way, another text this way. You read enough of those texts. And your unconsciousness understands what it is about. And you begin to notice that the pause structure begins to work by itself.

When we first discovered that level of structures we told ourselves that we would never be able to master this level. We'll never be able to do anything like that.
Then we read in Dr. Erickson's book: "People can be lazy. If I started teaching by precision, I'd bore them." And then we go and read the paragraphs and learn all those things as he did.

1.3. ERICKSONIAN SECONDARY LANGUAGES 

The Language of Voice Intonations.

Now we are continuing our deepening way into the Ericksonian approach.

The intonation of voice is understood in this research as the melody of voice that can change (get upper or lower) and some particular changes of pronunciation. Breathing phrases are divided by the intonation and the intonational phrases are separated one from another by a micro-pause. There can be one or more words in the intonational phrase. Altogether we found 15 intonations and in this report we are describing some of them.

1.3.1. The intonation for grouping the meanings

This intonation is pronounced when the voice goes up at the beginning of the phrase and then it simply goes down. It is used to re-group positive and negative meanings. For example, if the phrase, "You have problems, you experience pain all the time", is said as one intonational phrase the patient's unconscious mind would perceive the same literal negative message of 9 words where the pronoun "you", verbs "have" and "experience" are linked together with the negative words "problem" and "pain". The same words being said as 5 intonational phrases divided by a micro-pause, "You have  \  problems  \  you experience  \  pain \  all the time," would be perceived by unconscious mind as 3 neutral phrases and 2 impersonal negative phrases "problems" and "pain". 

That phenomenon can be called intonational dissociation that helps to dissociate problematic states from the person. It can be noticed that when a patient complains in his speech the problem is associated with himself by some intonation. We can suppose that when the patient complains such an association takes place also in his \ her internal thinking and it is expressed in speech so some words are united into one united intonational phrase by the intonation. When the complain is restructured and the intonational dissociation is made that is the beginning of therapeutic process: we help the patient to dissociate himself from the problem mentally.

In order to show the intonational structure we get back to Dr. Erickson’s work with Monde. The intonation for grouping the meanings is used very frequently. Patients often generalize the problems and that is heard in Monde's uniting intonational phrase: she associates herself and her problems. For example, the following phrases are said as united intonational phrases, without micro-pauses:

M.: \I was shocked that it broke

Later Dr. Erickson separates the meanings and that is an action of resolving the problem: 

\ as soon as \ you shut your eyes \ you'll begin to feel \ uncomfortable

Then the therapist again unites the meanings: 

you got uncomfortable,\  did you not ? \

what did it feel like? \ 

and then again separates: 

\ now how about selectingsomething elsethat's even moreuncomfortable

After one problem is resolved the words of the problem are united with personal pronoun "you" and right in the next phrase there can be named the other problem  which is again dissociated as in the fragment (87.): 

But you did live through that spanking  \               association

and you can live through  \

other troubles  \                                                     dissociation

So, the whole cycle is the following:
first, the negative words can sound as one intonational phrase in the patient's speech;
second, the negative words get separated and dissociated from the person while the problem gets resolved therapeutically;
third, positive words as well as the negative words that now are reframed get associated with the person by the intonation.
This cycle is repeated many times during the session. In this article we analyze only one of those cycles.

There is another process that goes on simultaneously. From the very beginning of the trance work (especially during the first 45 positive fragments) there are rather big intonational phrases that are pronounced as the united intonational phrase and have positive meaning. So even before the negatives are ever mentioned there is built an associational link between the pattern of big intonational phrases as it is and the positive meanings. Here are several examples of the positive intonational phrases: 

\it's pleasing to know\
\a learning experience\
\a very good time\
\it's a learning\
\are the good feelings\
\how you can use those learnings\
\It's nice to be comfortable

So, at the beginning of work the intonation unites big groups of positive words and the long intonational phrase itself becomes a sign of something positive. That associational link that can be built between the voice intonation and the meaning is described below (3.2.) - (3.7.). So even if the therapist just repeats the patient's long negative intonational phrases it is a positive suggestion because that type of intonation is already associationally linked together with general positive meanings. This is the first step of problem resolving: the positive meaning is suggested indirectly by the means of intonation.

So, during the problem resolving process the therapist separates the words with negative meaning from all the other words so he minimizes the negative meaning. After the problem is resolved the therapist again associates the therapeutic content with the patient into a united intonational phrase. This helps to enlarge the frame of positive meaning.

1.3.2. The intonation of person and action.

At the beginning of Dr. Erickson's therapeutic session we can hear personal names, pronouns and the words of person's actions. The mentioned actions are positive, constructive and easy to accomplish. All those words are pronounced with the same voice intonation - the voice goes up then down and then up. At the beginning this intonation is used only with the names, pronouns and words of actions. So the associational link is built: the specific intonation becomes a marker that means relevant persons and their positive and easily doable actions. At the decisive moment of the session the therapist pronounces the words of positive therapeutic actions with that same voice intonation. The unconscious mind perceives the indirect message: the actions and behavior that before were impossible for the patient now are similar to the easy doable actions. For the unconscious perception such a use of  intonation is equal to the words, "Now you can do this difficult things as easily as you do those simple things." 

This is a rather complicated therapeutic process. There are:
I.         a stage of setting the meaning of the intonation (A):
the intonation gets associated with the words of "persons" and their positive actions (A);
II.        a stage of utilization:
the intonation meaning (A) now gets associated with the words meaning "something negative" or "something neutral";
III.      a stage of re-establishing or reinforcement the associational positive meaning of the intonation (B+(A)):
the intonation (A) gets associated with the words with other positive meanings (B) "persons" and their actions;
IV.      a stage of utilization:
the intonation (B+(A)) now gets associated the words meaning "something negative" or "something neutral".

And so on. So the energy of positive associations that is established with the intonation is used in order to strengthen the therapeutic actions.
Below there are listed all the intonational phrases with the meaning "persons and action" in the order how they appear in the transcript. The very right numbers mean the numbers of the fragments and the left numbers mean the numbers of breathing phrases:

The Process of Collecting of the Positive Associational Meaning

of the Intonation "Person and Action"

each phrase is said with the intonation  from down - up - down - up

1. (4) it is for you
(7) so you can (Nick)
2. (8) not quite that fast, Monde
(10) 'cause in the trance I will want you
4. (16) now go deeply into trance
(19) and while you are in the trance
6. (31) the world suddenly takes on a wonderful look
(32) when you stand up and are no longer creeping
(33) then older
(34) you bent over and looked at the world from between your lags
(35) so you would have another view of this world look
7. (37) I would like to have you single out some one thing
9. (48) you remember
(50) Nick's hands lift upward
(51) I wonder
10. (54) up toward your face
11. (60) and faster
(61) now you know
(62) and it's something like that feeling up toward your face
(64) in your infancy
(65) your hand belonged to you
12. (69) because your unconscious
(71) and your unconscious
13. (74) you may
(75) be wondering
(76) I don't know
14. (78) a something that pleased you then
(Here are two intonational phrases separated by "\" in the transcript.)
15. (82) that good feeling was
(some other person)
16. (85) and that was before she went to school
17. (89) when it touches your face
18. (92) up it goes
20. (95) and I can talk to anybody I wish (to Nick)
21. (99) one of the things you're learning
(101) is beginning to lift
23. (110) closer and closer
(111) it's only about
(112) two and three quarters (inches)
(113) you enjoy that
(114) when your right hand
(115) your face
25. (118) you can do
(119) only you don't know
27. (121) but your unconscious does
(123) to meet your hand
28. (125) will enjoy it more
(126) than I can know
29. (127) going to move up and touch your face
31. (132) and when it touches
(M.'s left hand and face touch, her right hand returns to her thigh)
32. (133) very deeply
(135) you'll come upon a happy scene
35. (142) alone with me
(144) you remember
(146) seeing everything
(147) that videotaping... didn't remember
(149) see it at all
(150) and I want your attention just on me
(151) and see
(153) your head moves back
36. (155) just me
37. (156) my voice
(157) and now will come to your mind
38. (161) Splashing in the water
(163) Tell me more about it
(168) And where is the water?
(172) or don't you even know
39. (179) just as learning an alphabet
(180) letters and numbers
(185) that you learn
41. (190) it'll clear up
44. (206) are various things
(208) aren't you cold
the collected positive SUMMA of the intonation = associational meaning (A)

UTILIZATION # 1
The collected positive SUMMA of the intonation = associational meaning (A) mixes with the very first negative phrase that is said with the same intonation:

50. (223) You were shocked that it broke
REINFORCING OF THE INTONATION # 2

(B+(A))

51. (225) and adult understandings
52. (228) E.: Quite natural
the collected positive SUMMA of the intonation = associational meaning (B (+A))

UTILIZATION # 2
The collected positive SUMMA of the intonation = associational meaning (B(+A)) mixes with the negative meaning of the phrases that are said with the same intonation:

52. (232) And where's the broken glass?
53. (246) a small child's terror
REINFORCING OF THE INTONATION # 3

(C+(B+(A)))

53. (250) and you can smile about it
55. (252) something you forgot
56. (255) How big was the fish?
(257) little sunfish
60. (266) and your unconscious mind over here
(E. briefly turns his body to the left, points to M.'s left and continuous to point)
(267) but your body's over there
61. (278) something else that's interesting, yes
(281) and now you know you can't put it down
62. (282) the only way
63. (286) (to try) much harder
(287) I want some action
64. (291) You think you're too lazy
65. (296) That's way it's nice to be
(297) now
68. (304) to tell you something
(307) and never will be
(308) another like you
69. (311) just as fingerprints can't be changed
(312) secure feeling
(314) when you splash in the water
(315) when you caught your sunfish
70. (316) secure feeling
(317) even now when you can't move your hands
(319) and you can feel comfortable any time you wish
the collected positive SUMMA of the intonation = associational meaning (C(+B (+A)))

UTILIZATION # 3
The collected positive SUMMA of the intonation = associational meaning (C(+B(+A))) mixes with the negative meaning of the phrases that are said with the same intonation:

74. (326) then you have more courage, don't you?
77. (334) knowing you can control it
(335) now opening your eyes
78. (338) and you can afford to suffer
(343) but really examine that uncomfortable feeling
79. (344) that's not as threatening really as you thought
(345) you are getting through it
80. (346) have you had enough of it?
(347) you know what to do
REINFORCING OF THE INTONATION # 4

(D+(C+(B+(A))))

83. (351) Running? (2-year old Monde)
(352) with the ducks
(353) what's she doing?
(359) E.: How many? (ducks)
(361) You say about twelve.
the collected positive SUMMA of the intonation = associational meaning (D(+C(+B (+A))))

UTILIZATION # 4
The collected positive SUMMA of the intonation = associational meaning (D(+C(+B(+A)))) mixes with the negative meaning of the phrase said with the same intonation:

85. (366) now that broken window
(367) did your mother spank?
(374) this quite some spanking, wasn't it?
88. (384) well you're going to get another (spanking)
90. (386) and you'll get it as soon as you close your eyes
98. (400) and you're going to use
99. (401) and now you are going to feel
(404) that hate that anger
102. (409) you don't need to remember the incident but you can remember the feelings
103. (412) Like hairbrush had been used
104. (413) it is alright (to tell me about the incident)
106. (421) you can lessen the pain
107. (422) is that agreeable?
(423) you can do that
REINFORCING OF THE INTONATION # 5

(E+(D+(C+(B+(A)))))

107. (425) two-year old Monde
(426) the window braking Monde
(427) the duck chasing Monde
(428) duck feeding Monde
(430) into an adult Monde
108. (432) to meet me
109. (437) but the adult Monde does
the collected positive SUMMA of the intonation = associational meaning (E(+D(+C(+B (+A)))))

UTILIZATION # 5
The collected positive SUMMA of the intonation = associational meaning (E(+D(+C(+B(+A))))) mixes with the negative meaning of the phrase said with the same intonation:

109. (440) when discomfort
110. (448) you need all that time, do you
(449) show me how quickly you can close your eyes
(450) and banish the discomfort
112. (457) and I'm going to ask of you
(459) will that be alright?
113. (465) will you do so?
REINFORCING OF THE INTONATION # 6

(F+(E+(D+(C+(B+(A))))))

115. (471) your conscious mind can learn from it (from unconscious mind)
(473) the unconscious mind has
(475) back into the past
the collected positive SUMMA of the intonation = associational meaning (F(+E(+D(+C(+B(+A))))))

UTILIZATION # 6
The collected positive SUMMA of the intonation = associational meaning (F(+E(+D(+C(+B(+A)))))) mixes with the negative meaning of the phrase said with the same intonation:

116. (479) I've given you a task
(482) and an immoble (hand)
(488) now take it easily and comfortably and awaken

Those examples illustrate the process of building the associational meaning of the intonation and the process of utilization.

1.3.3. The intonation of context, situation and place (body or its parts as places).

Therapist's voice sounds "from up - down - up". At the beginning of the session the therapist uses this intonation when pronouncing the words with the meaning of contexts, situations and places where the patient can feel comfort and where some particular needed resources and abilities were available for him \ her. The phrases that are literally about some places are mixed with several phrases that are about something associated with the meaning "place and context", something positive. That is the way to enrich the meaning: the place is comfortable, the place is resourceful and so on. That enrichment we see in the phrases: (26), (43), (63), (193), (210), and (454).

After several repetitions this voice melody for the patient becomes associated with particular positive meanings. When this is done Dr. Erickson starts to pronounce with the same voice intonation words that mean other contexts and situations where the patient experiences difficulties and negative feelings, where he \ she needed to get access to the abilities and skills. For the unconscious perception such a use of intonation is equal to the words, "Now you can do it easy in those situations."

The use of that intonation is the same as the described before 1.3.2.

All the phrases that were said with this intonation are the following:

The positive enriched meaning (H) is collected in the phrases:
1. (3) I don't want you to go into a trance too soon
Thanks to the verb "go" "trance" is perceived as a place.
(5) and while Niñk is here
(6) I'd like to have you watch how Monde's face
5. (24) passing this scene, that scene in your life
(26) and I think it'd be most interesting if you would find some childhood infantile memory
The verb "find" makes Monde think about "childhood" as about some place.
6. (35) so you would have another view of this world look
(36) that you looked at and found so interesting
8. (43) and just as you're spreading your feeling of cool comfort
The verb "spread" is connected with the idea of place.
(44) you can spread a feeling
11. (62) up toward your face
(63) that feeling
(62) and (63) one after another are both about the movement (direction and place of movement).
(64) when once before in your infancy you discovered
(65) your hand belonged to you
23. (111) three inches
33. (137) a happy scene
35. (152) a scene from the past
39. (184) so are the good feelings of splashing with total abandonment in water
42. (193) Chasing a duck
44. (205) 'cause this a long life's highway
45. (210) In comfort?
UTILIZATION # 1
50. (224) it's nice to know what a shock is, isn't it
The utilization of the positive meaning while speaking about "shock" means that the shock is some place in the passed past but not a feeling in the present.
52. (234) Anybody around?
In the context of the problem.
REINFORCEMENT # 2 the meaning (I(+H))
59. (265) would you like to say your adult budy's sitting in that chair over there?
61. (272) Your feet are on a floor, yes
67. (303) and you could feel comfortable in a croud
69. (312) and I want you have the same secure feeling
(313) that you had
(314) when you splash in the water
UTILIZATION # 2
79. (344) that's not as threatening really as you thought
85. (367) did your mother spank?
95. (395) and there's gonna be some hate
(396) in you
104. (413) it is alright to tell me
(414) and strangers about the incident
REINFORCEMENT # 3 the meaning (J (+I(+H)))
112. (454) by the way you're comfortable?
UTILIZATION # 3
112. (458) something that will cause you discomfort
REINFORCEMENT # 4 the meaning (K (+J(+I(+H))))
115. (475) your unconscious mind can reach back into the past
(476) and single out
(477) any one thing, two things, tree things
Those are parts of the context.
UTILIZATION # 4
116. (488) now take it easily and comfortably and awaken

1.3.4. The intonation of time frame, duration and parts of processes 

This intonation goes from up - down - up - down - up can be set in the same manner as just described intonation of context and place. At first it is used when the words of time frame are pronounced and it also gets enriched with some additional meanings (124), (181). When the associational link is built for the unconscious perception this intonation becomes a marker of time frame. So we can make the patient unconsciously think about time when nothing is said directly.  The use of that intonation is the same as the described before (3.2.) and (3.3.).

All the phrases that were said with this intonation are the following:

The positive enriched meaning is collected in the phrases:
5. (28) such as the time
6. (33) then older
13. (73) and sooner or later I don't know just when
26. (120) that's right you're beginning the cheating
28. (124) and I hope you enjoy it
29. (127) how's it going to culminate
To "culminate" is a part of the process.
(130) and you thought for a moment
39. (180) and learning to recognize letters and numbers
(181) it's the bases
40. (188) and now I'd like to have you see yourself over there
(189) doing something else very charming
The word "now" means the time frame and the intonation is spread to the wider context: the therapist and the patient.
UTILIZATION
53. (246) And doesn't a small child's terror
(247) look differently than
(248) it really feels to the child?
86. (378) isn't it that way with all troubles?

1.3.5. The intonation of addressing to the conscious \ rational and unconscious \ intuitive mentality of the patient. 

The meaning of those two voice intonations can be set when the words with such meanings are said. When the therapy goes on, those intonations can be used as a nonverbal instruction concerning the process that is to be activated (unconscious or conscious process). For example, the word "understand" can be said so that the patient will turn to conscious understanding or to unconscious understanding depending on the nonverbal instruction. 

There are 9 more functional intonations found. Here we name one more: the intonation of the main meaning that is used in the same manner as described above.

Each intonation that is established with some particular meaning works for the whole therapeutic goal. The whole system of intonational extralinguistic signs we call the intonational secondary language. That language helps to compose any arranging of the associational perception of any words in the therapeutic process. It works in an indirect way. It can be interiorized for the patient as his \ her own mental process and as a helpful communicative pattern it can be unconsciously reproduced by a person who spent a long time with Dr. Erickson.

2. Widening the Boundaries and Going Beyond 

That is really a great question how deep Dr. Erickson's therapy really is. We have found the intonational structure and are amazed by the depth of this therapeutic process. It is known that Ericksonian therapy is done at many levels simultaneously. And here comes the question, how many levels are there? How complicated are they? Where will this literalism lead us?

And the other question is how can professionals master this multi leveled communication. It is easy to imagine how we can control the use of pauses and the interchange of the main themes. How can we imagine the technique for the adult person to control breathing in order to segment the speech into breathing phrases and control all the intonations and the connections between voice inflections and the meaning?

Actually we think about the system of college and university education. In the system of college education there is enough time for the students to spend hundreds of hours for mastering those techniques. Such techniques make it possible to describe the process of Ericksonian therapy and communication as a structure, as many certain parts. Such an approach allows to make a good formalization. That formalization allows to control easily the degree or level of mastership. It is easy to imagine lectures and practical study on such a material. It is easy to imagine examination for inspecting the theoretical, intuitive and improvisation of those structures.

We know that there is an opinion that Ericksonian method is only an art and can't be taught formally. There is only a possibility to learn from the experience, watching the samples. And one should be really a gifted person to master it, shouldn't he? Let's make it a metaphor.  Let's look at two great arts: fine arts and music. The fine art is similar to something you learn from the samples. A person can be so much gifted that he will draw great pictures without studying. If the artist studies it is done by watching and copying masterpieces following after those who did that well before.

The music also requires talent and can be played even without any studying. But unlike the fine art were the images and visual attention are controlled, music is a moving skill. The musician can control internal sounds and auditory perception but the music is played and that requires special movements. The artistry of music movements requires much practice. And the music has note writing. Notes allow to control the structure of internal, and external sounds and control the precision of movements for playing. Notes that structure the world of sounds make the existence of the music theory possible – it is the theory of harmony. Without notes we wouldn't know Sebastian Bach, Motzart and Bethoveen, etc. Notes allow people to deliver the genuine musical creation into future.

Someone may say that it's not needed. We may make a track and it will live a long life. But track doesn't allow to study but those small musical signs - the notes - and the rules of their combination (the theory of harmony) allow to develop the musical talent. And there are Academies of fine art and Academies of music but the level of structure of teaching and the possibility of mastering the art, the possibility of getting to the highest levels of mastering is much higher in the musical schools. 

We think that the art of Ericksonian therapy is the art of Ericksonian communication. We think that Ericksonian art is more like the music than the fine art. We think that Ericksonian art should have its "note signs" and the regularities of harmony. Erickson told, "My voice will follow you", and that is the art of speech. We think that Ericksonian art deserves to have a well structured theoretical basis. We think that the Ericksonian theory should be created so that it will provide an unlimited development. And Ericksonian approaches needs theory and practice of formal university education. Then we can make Ericksonian approaches exist forever, as long as people will study communication and as long as people will need help. Otherwise in four generation there will be only memorials left of Ericksonian approaches.

2.1. TEACHING ERICKSONIAN SECONDARY LANGUAGES

There is a science called semiotics. In Russia J. M. Lotman (1922 - 1993) was a leader of that science. It was he who first defined the secondary languages and studied the ways of delivering information in fine literature.

Secondary languages are the communicative structures that are built on the basis of natural languages and use it as a material similar to the use of sounds and letters in natural languages (J. M. Lotman, The Structure of Fine Literature Text, Moscow, 1970)

J. M. Lotman emphasized that a written text or a single word or a letter or any sign can be an element of secondary language - any element of the text can be a sign of secondary language. We use J. M. Lotman's definition in order to describe the processes that Erickson used for creating his complex multi leveled communication for delivering information to the human consciousness and change thoughts, emotions and physical processes, for healing and teaching. He addressed such communication equally to the patients and to the professionals whom he was teaching. He also used that very way for making professional scientific presentations.

In Dr. Erickson's monolog, we define the structure of meaningful pauses as a special secondary language (SL). There is one tremendously important SL-sign in this language – the pause. This sign delivers the suggestions: in the background of your mind integrate, make a whole piece out of fundamental oppositions. The other SL is the interchange of the phrases of different lenght that are separated by breath-in during Dr. Erickson’s monolog. In this language the meanings are delivered (1) by a special line of sequence of breathing phrases from the long breath-in phrase in the beginning and to the phrase consisted of a few or just one word. This SL delivers one general meaning that has three variations:
from the problem to the solution
from the question to the answer
from many choices to just one right choice, etc.

(2) The other way of delivering the information in this breathing SL is the position of information in the structure. Those positions lead listener's conscious and unconscious mind from a problematic state at some given moment to therapy, altered state of mind and trance. And the next, in the trance state those SL signs orient the person toward the future and future results, they deliver post-hypnotic suggestions, arrange a new structure of consciousness after the trance state.

We have described the third SL that has many special signs created by Dr. Erickson's voice inflections (intonations). There are about 15 signs and special meanings. And there is a special process that creates those meanings and utilize them. The deepening of understanding of Ericksonian knowledge isn't limited by those three SL. We have found some more SL and we are sure that anyone who takes that analytical approach will find a lot of amazing information. And we don't know yet any limits of that approach.

If we perceive and understand Ericksonian communication as a process of secondary languages we get very specific information. It allows us to make a precise description of the content of the therapy. It gives us formalized information about the process of mastering those skills and it gives us the theory of possible development of that knowledge. Such an approach can be easily combined with the understanding of Dr. Erickson's work as an art – because even if we know how the music is created and written we still can listen it with much pleasure and can play it without a paper. 

When we are explaining those things we often hear an objection that Dr. Erickson told that it's not possible to teach Ericksonian art and control and qualify the result of teaching. When we hear such an idea we first ask, if Dr. Erickson told about the difficulty of qualifying the teaching results or about the prohibition of such control. It is not possible to get to the Everest – what does that mean? Does that mean that it is very difficult and dangerous or is it a "stop" signal meaning that it is a prohibited thing?

Studying Dr. Erickson't wisdom and how he described methodology of his approach we noticed that if we find some positive or negative statement of something, it's better not to make any conclusions on the basis of just one statement. In some other place you will find some totally opposite statement. And the whole understanding requires that we put those opposites together. And unless we understand how those opposites are combined we have no way to comprehend Ericksonian wisdom that is hidden between those opposites.

In existential philosophy they say that the wisdom can be expressed only by making positive statement and negative statement of the same idea. Do you remember Hegelian dialectic? And that is the only possible wisdom. And that is the only one kind of wisdom that can exist forever.

The other thing that we've heard many times is that those processes can't be controlled and it's not possible to learn them. It is very difficult to imagine how one can control breathing and words. It is very difficult to imagine how one can control voice inflection according to some meanings and so on. The third objection is that after learning those secondary languages one will have to control those processes consciously all the time. That is a wrong understanding. The goal of learning those patterns is to stop conscious control over the technical part.

At the first stage of our learning methods we teach a person to control expressive part of communication. This way we teach the pattern of meaningful pauses, breathing pattern and voice inflection pattern. In order to learn to control those expressive patterns it is need for some time to start controlling each small pattern separately and make the consciousness free of controlling the content of the speech.

So at that first stage we think that the best way is to give a person a book or some written text. We do not recommend using Ericksonian texts for those initial stage of training. It's better to read any book you like. We prefer classic fine literature. And we set up that reading working out some one small pattern and develop it as an automatic skill so it appears in the person's speech unvoluntarly. That is simple to read fast a paragraph and then stop for 2-3 seconds. It comes very quickly that the professional notices that his professional speech becomes arranged the same way. His unconsciousness divides his speech into oral fragments and the pause comes between those paragraphs-ideas.

There is the same simple way to learn to control the lenght of the phrase between breath-ins. 10 or 20 words can be said between the breath-ins without any tension. And before reading you point in the text the phrases with a certain number of words and read it aloud and train yourselves to make breath-in only after the pointed words. When you are comfortable with that reading you go to the second step and decrease the number of the words between the breath-ins, make points in the text and read it making the breathing phrases shorter.

This way you continue up to the point where you can comfortably read pronouncing one or two words between breath-ins. Then you divide the text into long and short phrases and read it taking every other breath-in according to the points in the text, interchanging short and long phrases at random. But you breath in only at the moments that are pointed in the text. The same way you train the control over voice inflections. In the text you draw a line of some one inflection and read it until it goes smoothly and easily. You train to use that inflection with 10 or 20 words and you train to use that inflection with just one word. And so you proceed with every inflection - there are only 15 of them. And that is the first stage of the learning to control our expression.

Now comes the second stage of learning. It teaches to put together the expressive skills and the content. Now, here are the paragraphs in the text and you are to find and word out a general meaning of each paragraph. You are reading the text and keep in mind the meaning and after each paragraph you make a meaningful pause. This way you learn to put together the content and the structure of meaningful pauses. And soon the automatic skill comes, and when you speak without thinking much, your unconsciousness creates a whole united paragraphs-ideas in your speech and makes you to make a meaningful pause before turning to the next paragraph-idea. Here your unconsciousness is free to keep a plan of therapy.

And that is the time for you to take Dr. Erickson's original text WRITTEN BY HIS HAND (unedited). That can be a transcript of his work from the first to the last word. Or you can take his scientific article and you look for general meaning of the paragraphs. You write the sequence of those general meanings and you begin to understand that it is a metaphorical plan of some sort of therapy. You compare different plans and compare them with your own ideas of therapy, and you take some one plan and make every general idea into a paragraph of your particular therapy. And you can be sure that when you will do that therapy your unconsciousness will make pauses in right places.

Now, you take the idea of breathing structures and your ability to write a text of therapy, writing breathing phrases one under the other structuring the phrases of your therapy this way. First goes an idea of 10-20 words – a question or a problem or some uncertainty. Then you make phases shorter and shorter and you come to a phrase of two or one word that is something definite and means a solution, etc.

The same way you put together voice inflections and meanings. You take your texts or Dr. Erickson's texts and try to put only one type of inflection into this text planning it to work. And you gradually go to the texts that contain all the inflections.

You can use only the structure of meaningful pauses in your therapy. That will make it more effective. You may use only your breathing for enriching your therapy. Or you may use only one voice inflection, or all the list of them in order to make it better, stronger and effective. You can put all those things together, make it in many different ways with many different contents, positions. That is the way of perfection. This way you can work every day, three times a week, two times a week or even once a week. People have different potential, but even once or twice a week such a training gives very definite and appreciable result in a year or a year and a half. You feel the source of communicative perfection in your internal world. And it works spontaneously, it gives you an amazing communicative diversity. You enjoy the diversity of your thoughts and vocabulary. You are surprised by the diversity of ideas that comes from that internal source of perfection. And if that is important you may feel satisfaction seeing how people, you will address to, will react to your communication.

And when professionals come to us for the first time and ask what is the theory of that way of perfection, we answer them. Then we are asked about steps and ways of that learning, we answer them more detailed. We even may be asked about the very details of that process we are happy to answer. But if we are asked again about the idea and the details in a speculative way, we tend to answer with a traditional words: "How do you get to Carnegie Hall..?" - "Practice, practice and practice." But we say, just begin now, so that every day of a week at least once, or twice, or three times or at least one day a week spend several hours for that. And if they say they don't have time even at weekends, we stop answering.

3. Existing Forever 

We see the way of Ericksonian development in deepening our understanding of its origin and evolution, and in decoding Dr. Erickson's heritage. We think that Dr. Erickson's heritage is sort of a country, and we still don't have its map. And the description of our research is a description of only one way of this country. We like it because it's ours. The other argument for that way is that it allows to widen the boards of that country. Up to that very moment we were describing Dr. Erickson's secondary languages. That is so versatile idea that there is a theory of it.

The theory of secondary languages helps to create other secondary languages that Dr. Erickson didn't use. But being built on the basis of his secondary languages those other secondary languages come from the same root. The other side is that they can be adopted by individuality of a particular specialist giving him an opportunity to realize his own ability and talent. Secondary languages that can be developed can be equally effective when they are very complex, much more complex techniques than Ericksonian ones, and when they are simpler.

The other way of using Ericksonian theory is to put it together with the other theory – Dr. Lotman's theory. The Ericksonian approach enriches Dr. Lotman's purely semiotic theory with psychological and physiological ideas and many examples and the ways of practical application - there're no such things in Dr. Lotman theory. This way we get Erickson-Lotman theory that develops other science: semiotics, linguistic, psycholinguistic, etc. This way Ericksonian knowledge goes beyond it's boundaries and enrich other fields of science, creates a symbiotic connection with them. We are deeply certain that the potential of Ericksonian knowledge allows to create even a new science about interpersonal communication not only in the psychotherapeutic framework.

Our guess is that it was Dr. Erickson's dream about the future when he communicated a lot with professionals from different fields: M. Mead, G. Bateson, etc.

Now if we have the possibility to deepen Ericksonian knowledge, the possibility to teach Ericksonian practice, and the possibility to widen the boundaries, the possibility to create new scientific knowledge we can be sure that Ericksonian knowledge is something that can exist forever.

During these days of celebrating Ericksonian Centenial when a huge community of professionals honors the scientific and practical and human achievements of Dr. Erickson, we want to address to our colleagues: to those who begin studying Ericksonian therapy and those who are the leaders – with the ask to help and support the movement of Ericksonian knowledge forward existing forever.

Well, in this paper we have told about developing of Ericksonian knowledge and that it begins with its deepening. We told that the most important thing for understanding Ericksonian knowledge is literalism. We told about different ways of learning Ericksonian approaches. Now we would like to discuss the development of the skill of understanding the literalism. We think that it is developed the same way as the other skills that the Ericksonian specialist needs. We think that the ability to understand Ericksonian knowledge literally is a special state of awareness.

We think that that is a special professional state of consciousness. As any other skill it can be developed with practice and there can be created different methods. Any forms of contact with Ericksonian knowledge are effective: you may listen Dr. Erickson speaking or watch a video or you may read aloud his own texts. Now we can't tell how long time it will take for Erickson's voice, words and work to influence you. We know that it definitely happens in some period of time.

There is a big individual diversity. We gave that instruction to different professionals. We asked them to tell us what comes in result. The fastest period took half a year. The longest lasted for five years. We can tell about ourselves, it took two years for us. Constant influence of Dr. Erickson's communication leads you to the awareness that your eyes begin seeing in different way, your ears begin hearing differently, your thoughts and emotions become different. And then the world of Dr. Erickson's heritage becomes open for you as it is – complex, versatile and wide. And you have only to feel it, understand it and express it.

The development of Ericksonian therapist

Actually we think that it should reproduce the paths of Ericksonian knowledge development. In his or her professional development the therapist should learn Ericksonian wisdom and Ericksonian secondary languages. He or she should be able to create his or her own secondary languages and build a literal state of awareness as a professional tool. Using this tool he or she should be able to discover new things in Ericksonian heritage.

In other words, Ericksonian specialist is a practitioner, scientist and researcher. Individually people may be more practitioners and less researches and scientist or less practitioners and more researcher and scientist in their individual manner. But all those three aspects necessarily should be combined: Ericksonian specialist should be a fundamental practitioner, should be able to find new patterns and should be able to generalize the findings. Ericksonian network should provide special seminar programs for professionals, develop special programs for collage education, and arrange special researching program of the Archives and Ericksonian heritage.